The Family in the Jewish Faith
Some 30 years ago, as a young psychologist, I attended the international meeting of Family Therapists at the University of NSW. As I looked around the John Clancy Auditorium I recognized many faces as people with whom I’d grown up in the Jewish community, and saw many other Jewish people there. I turned to my neighbor – an older and more experienced Family Therapist, with whom I’d attended a Jewish youth group in my adolescence, and remarked on the large proportion of Jews in attendance. To all of us in that hall, functioning families were of paramount importance. The family is absolutely central to a Jewish person’s world, and if it is dysfunctional, it is a crisis. That is probably why so many researchers into family, so many who work to support family functioning, are Jewish, and why so much thought is put into making families work by Jewish people.
Professionally, that is also the core of my work. It is informed by the values that I have instilled in me by being brought up in an observant Jewish family – albeit one that has been in Australia for over 150 years, and has thus been influenced by an Aussie culture as well.
I note that modern Positive Psychology, developed by Martin Seligman, recognizes the role of gratitude in peoples’ (and families’) sense of wellbeing. This nice Jewish boy only had to look to Jewish prayer to understand that that wisdom underpins Jewish family life.
Before I begin, may I say that juvenile delinquency has multifaceted causes – not just family breakdown. What we do know is that children living with both parents do better than those who don’t – as long as there is no abuse or neglect. So if we care about children, we have to assist couples to enhance the quality of their relationship, so that they can stay together to do the best they can for their children.
Let us reflect on the role of the family in Judaism. The very first bad thing noted by G-d in Genesis was the idea of man being alone, without a helpmate; the very first commandment given to man after his Creation was to go forth and procreate. When G-d created humans, both male and female He created them – obviously He created male and female in every species, but Genesis stipulates that both were created by G-d in the case of humans, to prove that BOTH are in the image of G-d, and all of humankind – male and female – has dominion over the rest of the world.
The Bible stories that informed my early education, and that we read cyclically every year in the synagogue, are full of families. Our G-d is the “G-d of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, of Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah.” The prayer that we make to bless our children calls on that G-d – the one who knows about families – to have lives like our matriarchs and patriarchs – in that they had to learn to deal with human issues such as jealousy, sibling rivalry, infertility, isolation – yet remained strong in their faith, and taught their children to grow up to be good Jews.
Members of families have different roles and responsibilities.
Jewish tradition values justice and kindness in all relationships, and gives specific responsibilities to parents and children. The responsibilities of parents include disciplining children so that they know right from wrong, teaching them Jewish tradition, and seeing that they learn a vocation.
The specific responsibilities of children include honoring and revering their parents. However, in recent years, the duration of children’s dependence on their parents has been extended from the mid-teen years—when tradi- tionally girls were married and boys apprenticed in a trade or sent to a yeshiva—to an additional five or more years. These are now important high school and college years during which the child learns knowledge and skills to be a productive adult in today’s society. Part of these skills are not academic, but rather skills in taking on and carry- ing out challenging responsibilities, and in making and carrying out personal decisions. Thus parents today generally feel it is important to the child’s life education gradually to give the teen increased responsibility and freedom, as he or she matures. This means parent and teen go through a delicate ‘separation waltz’. Ideally, the parents gradually step back, and the teen gradually assumes more responsibility. Often one or both doesn’t happen: the teen is irresponsible, the parent is too control- ling or too permissive. The result is a prolonged, painful conflict that turns the “hearts of the children” from the parents, the hearts of the parents from the children.
During the teen years, then, there is a continually changing relationship between parents and children, with a change in responsibilities and power. Both parents and children have to continually redefine their relationship. This process is not only inherently difficult, but made more complex by uncertainty over the proper authority of parents. Judaism teaches that the child may not sit in his father’s place.
Jewish tradition is clear that a prime responsibility of parents is to reprove and correct their children for any moral wrong-doing. First of all we have a general responsibility to reprove wrongdoing: You shall surely reprove your neighbor. (Lev. 19:27). The responsibility to reprove and correct children in particular is a central theme of the book of Prov- erbs: A wise son—it is through the discipline of his father; A scoffer—he has never heard reproof. (Prov. 13:1)
In Talmudic times, the sages softened the severity of the Biblical punishments. They effec- tively defined out of existence the “stubborn and rebellious son” of Deuteronomy, for whom the death penalty was prescribed. And where Proverbs says, He that spares the rod hates his son (Prov. 13:24), one Talmudic sage says, If you strike a child, strike him only with a shoelace (Bava Batra, 21a.). However, while punishments were softened, the obligation to reprove was just as emphatic: All love that has no reproof with it is not true love. (Gen. R. 54:3). Reproving a child is a key part of teaching him or her to be a morally upright person.
And this is where Judaism’s understanding of the individual is significant in explaining why parents are given this directive. We believe that we are born with both an evil and a good inclination, and that it is through parenting that the child learns to be a moral adult.
A psychological experiment performed only recently illustrates this: The subject was cheating – who does it and why. People were given a maths test. There were four groups – prior to the test, two groups were asked to write down all the books they had read in the last year, the other two groups to write down all of the Ten Commandments that they could remember. Then all did the test. One group each of those who wrote down book titles or the commandments marked the test and handed it in. No room to cheat. The other two groups each marked their tests, then submitted a slip of paper with their mark on it. What do you think happened? The group who wrote down book titles improved their scores overall by about 25%. Those who wrote down the Ten Commandments had the same mean score whether they had the chance to cheat or not. This, despite the fact that many of the subjects remembered barely none of the Commandments – just thinking about doing the right thing helped them do it.
Teaching morality works.
In the brief moments left to me, I will reflect on some of the major challenges facing Jewish families today.
1. Remembering the past. One third of the Jewish people was slaughtered in the Holocaust of mid-last century. How do we continue to honour their memory while allowing our children to not be burdened by that pain?
2. As a result of that Holocaust, our greatest religious thinkers were lost to us. This has taken decades and two generations to recover, and many of our Rabbinical leaders remain too humble to make landmark rulings that would assist people to live more comfortably in the 21st century (in particular, rules about divorce).
3. Acceptance of Jewish people within the general community has made an enormous difference to the way Jewish people can live. However, it means parents have to face the fact of intermarriage, and what that means to Jewish families.
4. The vilification of Israel, when so much of Jewish identity is caught up with that Land. It bites into our self-esteem and makes people anxious.
5. The aforementioned extended adolescence – a problem, I am sure, for all families, whatever their faith.